Welcome you to another new post of the manual testing tutorial series. In this post, we are going to learn What is software testing? Before sharing the knowledge about software testing, let me ask you a straightforward question: Do you know what software testing is, or have you any prior knowledge of software testing?
if you don’t have any knowledge of software testing, then there is no need to worry because in this post we are going to share software testing in detail and also we are going to discuss:
- What is Software Testing?
- What is the definition of software testing?
- Why is Software Testing Important?
- Why do we need Testing?
- Principles of Software Testing
- What are the different types of software testing?
- Various methods are available in software testing
- what are the different approaches in software testing
- Software Testing Life Cycle
Let’s Start discusses each of the above things one by one and tries to understand them easily with some real-time examples.
What is a Software?
Let me explain to you first about what is software? So the software is nothing but is setup instructions, data, or programs that are used to operate a computer and execute specific tasks. We know that hardware representing the physical aspects of a computer in the same manner software is a generic term that uses refund applications, scripts, and programs that run a device.
Software is a generic term for programs or sets of instructions that tell computer hardware how to operate. Computer software can be divided into two categories:
- Applications: are the specific programs people use on their computers. Examples include web browsers, word processors, games, and music players.
- Systems software: It includes basic tools, such as compilers, that allow applications to run.
What is Software Testing?
Software Testing is the process of evaluating software products for defects, deficiencies, or errors. The purpose of testing is to uncover any problems with the product before it begins operation (i.e., after being delivered to its end users). This ensures that all the customers receive quality products free from faults and errors. Software Testing is an essential part of quality assurance.
Software Testing is also known as QA Testing and software validation. Software testing does not necessarily mean only looking for bugs or defects in a software program. In its broadest sense, software testing can be defined as a process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors (bugs).
Software Testing is performed with the objective to detect software failures so that defects may be identified and corrected. Software Testing is not limited to looking for bugs only; it includes all activities aimed at evaluating an application for compliance with its design. The main purpose of software testing is to identify bugs in the application and provide a mechanism for removal or correction.
Definition of Software Testing
As we have discussed the Software testing is a process of verifying and validating the developed application that is bug-free, meets, or satisfies the user requirement, which is describing during the development and design stage.
Here, the aims of software testing are not only to find the application’s defects but also to find the gaps so that we can improve efficiency, accuracy, and usability.
As per the ANSI/IEEE, 1059 standard definition Software Testing Means
The definition of testing according to the ANSI/IEEE 1059 standard is that testing is the process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is defects/errors/bugs) and to evaluate the features of the software item.
Why do we need Software Testing?
The answer is very simple – we need Software Testing because we want to make sure that the software that customers use doesn’t crash and has no bugs. That’s what all people, who are coding software, want as well. They want their code to be bug-free but sadly this is not always the case.
In reality, software is a complex discipline that somehow involves the knowledge and skills of many different disciplines. For example, if you want your software to be perfect, you need good coders (software developers), but in addition, you also need testers who will make sure that the code works as it should work – bug-free. The main reason for hiring Software Testing companies is to avoid mistakes that could cost you much money.
There are many other factors which we have discussed below like:
- Cost-Effective: Testing any software application on time can save lots of time and money. Because if you don’t test the application at an early stage and you test your application later, at that time, if you found many bugs. Then it will cost more and also impact the delivery of your product because it will require more time to fix those bugs as its impact may be other modules of your application.
- Security: It is one of the most sensitive parts of the testing of any software application. Because every user tries to use a trusted application and on which they can rely that. So by software testing, we can able to find the risks and problems on that application.
- Product Quality: Whatever the Software application we are developing, that should be working as planned. For this, we need to follow the product requirements because by observing that, we can get the required results.
- Customer Satisfaction: The Main goal of any organization or product owner is to give the best to their customer, satisfying the application. So for achieving this, the software needs to be tested so that we can bring the best user experience to the consumers.
Software Testing Principles
Fundamental testing principles help test teams get the most out of their time and effort during the process. Through the application of fundamental principles, tests can be performed with greater efficiency and effectiveness. Fundamental principles are applicable to all types of testing— black box, white box, performance, load, security, and more.
Some fundamental principles are obvious, some not so much. Some are easy to adopt; others can be more difficult. All of them will make a positive contribution to the test strategy employed by your team.
The following list represents a set of fundamental principles that should help test teams get better results, reduce risk and ultimately gain confidence in their testing activities. Adopting these philosophies will take you and your team to the next level.
- Software testing can help in detecting bugs: Once the Application is developed, it is recommended to test the application. Because there are chances of getting the defects that may not be identified by the developers. So the testers are created the Test cases for the application with the various scenario and try to find out as many defects in the application.
- Early testing: The earlier you start the testing for an application or project, you will find the defects in the earlier stages only by which you can fix those effects with less effort.
- Error-free or Bug-free software is a myth: Just by testing an application by the testers and if they didn’t find any defects on the application, it does not imply that your software is ready for shipping.
We have written a detailed post about the Software Testers Principles of Testing, you can follow the link for that article.
Software Testing Types OR Types of Testing
There is various type of testing present to verify that your product is working expected or not. but all those testing are categorized into main types:
- Manual Testing
- Automation Testing
The first stage of testing is manual testing. The tester who does the manual testing is called a “Manual Tester”. Most if not all professional testers do some form of manual testing, even if they are using automated tools for other types of tests.
The purpose of Manual Testing is to validate the business objective that has been mentioned for the respective product. Manual testing is a manual process that does not use any automatic tools.
Manual testing can be done by developers and testers too, but Only Software testers do this testing because they know their product more than others.
In manual testing, the person has to simulate the business flow of the application or whole functionality of software so validating the defect that occurs in these business flow with a good experience.
Automation Testing is an automated software testing process that reduces manual test efforts. It is performed by a tool or script and the developer has limited to no involvement during the execution of this activity.
Automation Testing became popular when it was observed that Manual Software Test Engineers were not able to achieve maximum productivity due to the following reasons:-
It also consumes more time with repetitive tasks and planning before performing them manually. This leads to wastage of money if done frequently in the same quality standard.
After observing all these disadvantages, there came automation testing where Computers are used as intelligent performing devices. Although machines can’t think like humans they have some characteristics which are useful for testers to perform similar activities as we do manually, but at a much faster speed with fewer errors.
We have discussed in detail Types of Testing in a separate post. you can read that.
During testing any application, we came across two different testing methods, that is:
- Static Testing
- Dynamic Testing
Static Testing: In software testing, static testing is one of the testing techniques where the testing is carried out without executing the code. Such type of testing is coming under verification. In static testing, we are checking the files and documents like test cases, software requirement specification (SRS), test plan, and other various testing artifacts.
So we are verifying all these testing documents to ensure that we’re building the correct software product as per the specification document. There are three Different testing techniques that are followable to check the document completeness and correctness. those techniques are
- Walkthrough: this means checking a document by reading from the first page to the last page
- Inspection: In this technique, we are checking a document by searching for some specific factors
- Peer review: In this technique, we are verifying the document by comparing two similar documents.
These three document testing techniques are called static testing techniques or review techniques.
Note: Verification means Are we building the product, right?
Dynamic Testing: Like static testing, dynamic testing is also one type of software testing technique. Here testing is carried out by executing the code. This type of testing is coming under validation. In this process, we are validating the software product is to meet the client’s requirements.
Note: Validation means Are we building the right product?
Different types of software testing approaches are present. Still, the main goal of all software testing approaches is to ensure that the final software product meets the requested criteria, and the software product is free from bugs.
best open this the software testing approach is categorized into three different types:
- White Box Testing
- Black Box Testing
- Grey Box Testing
Black Box Testing: In black-box testing, the QA tester giving some input to the software product and looks for the specified outputs. The idea behind the name is that the content of the code Under test is unknown to the test case, and, by definition, the QA tester is the only one concerned with the functional verification.
This black box testing also has some other names that are Behavioral/Specification-Based/Input-Output Testing. In this type of testing the tester test the functionality of the application without looking at the internal code structure.
White Box Testing: In white-box testing, the tester is knowing precisely what is going on with the code under the test, and tests are executed primarily to verify the robot of the code rather than its absolute functionality.
This white box testing is carried out at the beginning stage of the development process by doing unit tests and the early part of the integration phase.
There are different synonymous are available of this testing that is Glass Box, Clear Box, Structural Testing. This testing is conducted based on the internal application code. For this testing, the resource has a good knowledge of Programming skills. This type of testing is carried at the unit level.
Grey Box Testing: This grey box testing is a combination of both white box testing. This type of testing is conducted when the software product is moving towards the end of the integration phase and the beginning of usability.
Different Testing Levels
Before deliver or release a software product, it undergoes a thorough testing process to ensure that the final software product is working as expected. So to ensure that the hit module or the software product is working as expected, the software application passes through 4 stages after testing that are:
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
- System Testing
- Acceptance Testing
Unit Testing: This type of testing is carried out to check whether the code of the individual module is working correctly or not. Developers mainly do this testing while developing that application. So this is also called as Module Testing or Component Testing.
Integration Testing: In this testing, we combine different modules as a single unit and test the application connectivity and data transfer between different modules. Integration Testing is again divided into different types that Top-Down Approach, Bottom-Up Approach, and Sandwich Approach.
System Testing (End to End testing): This testing is one of the black box testing techniques. Here we are testing the complete application form end to end to ensure that the application is working correctly after integrated all the modules.
Acceptance Testing: In this testing, we obtain the customer sign-off so that software can be delivered and payments received. There are few acceptance testing types there are like are Alpha, Beta & Gamma Testing.
Types of Balck Box Testing
As we mentioned above, that in black-box testing, the user test the functionality of the application. According to that we have two types of Balck Box Testing, That is:
- Functionality Testing
- Non-functionality Testing
Functionality Testing: In this type, we are verifying the functionality of the application that the software application is behaving, as mentioned in the requirement documents or not. We are testing the feature by giving the appropriate input to verify that it gives us the expected or not. Here the testers no need to worry about the source code of the application.
Non-functional testing: Here we are not testing application functionality. We are testing other aspects like performance, load, stress, scalability, security, compatibility, etc. Here the main focus is to find out how we can improve the user experience and how fast the system responds to a request.
Testing artifacts is an integral part of software testing. These testing artifacts are prepared during the process of software testing. And finally, digit testing attributes are said with the clients, stakeholders, team manager, team lead, and also with team members.
Before delivering the Software or project, it goes through many stages or cycles that are called SDLC. So during each phase, we are getting some deliverables. Some of the testing deliverables are:
When do we Stop Testing?
When someone asks you when you stop testing, it’s tough to answer this. Because no one knows when errors are not occurring. because one can never be sure when an error or a fault will occur in software. But some standards help us in determining the testing closer. That is:
- Sufficient pass percentage: It depends on the stakeholder, but the testing can be stopped when the test case pass percentage is reached to a certain level.
- After a successful test case execution: After a complete cycle of test cases executed after the last known bug fix.
- On meeting deadline: If the deadline for the projects is meet and there are no high priority bugs are there.
Software Testing Companies
Nowadays, there are so many big MNC companies that are providing software testing services to two other Core software developing companies. thought about some of the big companies who are on the list of offering this type of assistance is:
- HCL and Many more
Software Testing Interview Questions
We can understand that most of the QA tester is looking for software testing interview questions. Keeping in mind, you have collected from various online resources and also from the inspectors who have to attend multiple positions in software testing companies. You can follow those questions by using our software testing interview question link.
I hope that after going through this post, you have to get in little idea about software testing. This is an oval post about software testing, but if you want to learn more about software testing, then you can follow our manual testing series where try to cover all the concept of a manual testing or software testing.