Test Engineer Interview Questions
What is Endurance Testing?
Ans: Endurance testing: in this testing, we test application behavior against the load and stress applies to the application for a long duration of time. The goal of this testing is: To determine how the application is going to respond to high load and stress conditions in the real scenario.
To ensure that the response times in high load and stress conditions are within the user’s requirement of response time. Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.
What is End-to-End testing?
Ans: End-to-End Testing we take the application from the starting phase of the development cycle until the ending of the development cycle. We can simply say that it comes into play when we take the requirement from the customer until the end of the delivery of the application.
The purposes of End-to-End testing are: Validates the software requirements and checks it is integrated with external interfaces. Testing application in real-world environment scenario. It involves testing the interaction between the application and database. Executed after functional and system testing. End-to-End testing is also called Chain Testing
Read Also: Selenium WebDriver Architecture
What is Gorilla Testing?
Ans: A test technique that involves testing with various ranges of valid and invalid inputs a particular module or component functionality extensively. In Gorilla testing test case and test data are not required. It uses random data and test cases to perform testing of an application.
The purpose of Gorilla testing is to examine the capability of single module functionality by applying heavy load and stress to it. And determine how much load and stress it can tolerate without getting crashed.
Why we need Localization Testing?
Ans: Localization testing mainly deals with the functionality of the application and GUI of the application. The purposes of using Localization testing are the following: Mainly deal with internationalization and localization aspects of the software. Evaluate how successfully the language is interpreted in a specific language.
Translate GUI of the application so that it can adapt to a particular region language and interface.
What is Metric?
Ans: Metric is a standard of measurement. Software metrics use the statistical method for explaining the structure of the application. The software metric tells us measurable things like the number of bugs per line of code. We can take the help of software metrics to make the decision regarding application development.
The test metrics are derived from raw test data because what cannot be measured cannot be managed. The software metric also helps the Project Management team to manage the project like the schedule for the development of each phase.
Explain Monkey testing.
Ans: Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing, we use Smart monkey and Dumb monkey. Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs.
They are very expensive to develop. Dumb monkey, they are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey is less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys. Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered
What is Negative Testing
Ans: Negative Testing is performed to find a situation when the software crashed. It is a negative approach, in this tester try to put efforts to find the negative aspects of the application. Negative testing ensures that an application can handle the invalid input, incorrect data, and incorrect user response. For example, when a user enters the alphabetical data in a numeric field, the error message should be displayed saying “Incorrect data type, please enter a number”
What is Path Testing?
Ans: Path testing is a testing in which tester ensures that every path of the application should be executed at least once. In this testing, all paths in the program source code are tested at least once. The tester can use the control flow graph to perform this type of testing.
What is Performance Testing?
Ans: Performance Testing is focused on verifying the system performance requirements like response time, Transactional throughput and number of concurrent users. It is used to accurately measure the End-to-End performance of a system. It identifies the loopholes in Architectural Design which helps to tune the application.
It includes the following: Emulating ‘n’ number of users interacting with the system using minimal hardware. Measuring End-User’s Response time. Repeating the load consistently Monitoring the system components under controlled load. Providing robust analysis and reporting engines
What is the difference between baseline and benchmark testing?
Ans: The difference between baseline and benchmark testing are: Baseline testing is the process of running a set of tests to capture performance information whereas Benchmarking is the process of comparing application performance with respect to the industry standard that is given by some other organization.
Baseline testing uses the information collected to make the change in the application to improve the performance and capabilities of the application whereas benchmark information where our application stands with respect to others. Baseline compares the present performance of the application with its own previous performance whereas the benchmark compares our application performance with other companies’ application’s performance.
What are the test driver and test stubs?
Ans: The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in the top-down approach. The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in the bottom-up approach. Both test stub and test drivers are dummy software components. We need to test stub and test driver because of the following reason: Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and us have developed only module A.
So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepared, using that we can test module A. Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.
What is Agile Testing?
Ans: Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client’s requirements and makes the application of a high-quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the application is started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end-user requirements.
We put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of a short time frame which will further help in reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be implemented in the code which will avoid the defects coming from the end-user.
Explain the bug life cycle.
Ans: Bug Life Cycle: When a tester finds a bug. The bug is assigned NEW or OPEN with status, The bug is assigned to the development project manager who will analyze the bug. He will check whether it is a valid defect. If not the valid bus is rejected, now the status is REJECTED. If not, next the defect is checked whether it is in scope. When the bug is not part of the current release. Such defects are POSTPONED Now, Tester checks whether the similar defect was raised earlier.
If yes defect is assigned a status DUPLICATE When the bug is assigned to the developer. During this stage, the bug is assigned a status IN-PROGRESS Once the bug is fixed. The defect is assigned a status FIXED Next the tester will re-test the code. In case the test case passes the defect is CLOSED If the test case fails again the bug is RE-OPENED and assigned to the developer. That’s all about Bug Life Cycle.
What is Matching Defects?
Ans: Matching Defects helps us to remove the locking of the same defect in the bug in the application. While using QC, every time we lock a bug, QC saves the list of keywords from the Summary and Description Fields of the bug. When we search for similar defects in QC, keywords in these fields are matched with other defects which are locked previously. Keywords are more than two characters and they are not case sensitive.
We have two methods to conduct a search for similar defects. Finding similar Defects: compare a selected defect with all other existing defects in the project. Finding similar Text: compare a specific test string against all other existing defects in a project.
What is Recovery Testing?
Ans: Recovery testing is done to check how fast and better the application can recover against any type of crash or hardware failure. The type or extent of recovery is specified in the requirement specifications. Recovery testing will enable the customer to avoid any inconvenience that is generally associated with the loss of data and performance of the application. We can perform regular recovery testing in order to take a backup of all necessary and important data.
What is a Test Case?
Ans: Test case is a set of conditions which is used by the tester to perform the testing of the application to make sure that the application is working as per the requirement of the user. A Test Case contains information like test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc The process of developing test cases can also enable us to determine the issues related to the requirement and designing process of the application.
In Test First Design what step you will follow to add new functionality to the project?
Ans: When we have to add new functionality to our project, we perform the following steps: Quickly add a developer test: we need to create a test that ensures that newly added functionality will not crash our project. Run your tests. Execute that test, to ensure that new additional functionality does not crash our application.
Update your production code. In this, we update our code with a few more functionality so that the code passes the new test. Like adding to an error message in the field where the field can take only numeric data. Run your test suite again. If the test fails, we have to do a change in the code and perform retesting of the application.
What are Validation and Verification?
Ans: Verification: the process of evaluating the work-products of a development phase to determine whether they fulfill the specified requirements for that phase. Validation: the process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it specified requirements. Difference between Verification and Validation: Verification is Static testing whereas Validations is Dynamic Testing.
Verification takes place before validation. Verification evaluates plans, documents, requirements, and specifications, whereas Validation evaluates the product. Verification inputs are the checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection whereas in the Validation testing of the actual product. Verification output is a set of documents, plans, specifications and requirement documents whereas in Validation actual product is output.
What are the different approaches to do Integration Testing?
Ans: Integration testing is black-box testing. Integration testing focuses on the interfaces between units, to ensure that units work together to complete a specified task. The purpose of integration testing is to confirm that different components of the application interact with each other. Integration testing is considered complete when actual results and expected results are the same.
There are mainly three approaches to do integration testing. Top-down Approach: Tests the components by integrating from top to bottom. Bottom-up approach: It takes place from the bottom of the control flow to the higher-level components Big bang approach: In this are different modules are joined together to form a complete system and then testing is performed on it.
Can you explain the elementary process?
Ans: Software applications are made up with the help of several elementary processes. There are two types of elementary processes: Dynamic elementary Process: The dynamic elementary involves process of moving data from one location to another location. The location can be within the application and outside the application. Static elementary Process: Static elementary involves maintaining the data of the application.
Explain the PDCA cycle.
Ans: Software testing is an important part of the software development process. In normal software development, there are four important steps PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) cycle. The four steps are discussed below: Plan: Define the goal and the plan for achieving that goal. Do: execute those plan strategy which is planned in plan phase Check: Check to make sure that everything is going according to the plan and gets the expected results. Act: Act according to that issue.
What are the categories of defects?
Ans: There are three main categories of defects: Wrong: The requirements are implemented incorrectly in the application. Missing: When the requirement given by the customer and application is unable to meet that application. Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. This is always a variance from the specification, but maybe an attribute desired by the user of the product.
What are the different types of verifications?
Ans: Verification is a static type of software testing which is started in an earlier phase of development of software. In this approach, we don’t execute the software that the reason it comes in static testing. The product is evaluated by going through the code. Types of verification are: Walkthrough: Walkthroughs are informal techniques. Where the Developer leader organizing a meeting with the team member to take feedback regarding the software.
This can be used for the improvement of software quality. The walkthrough is unplanned in the SDLC cycle. Inspection: Inspection is done by checking a software product thoroughly with the intention to find out the defect and ensuring that software is meeting the user requirements.
Which test cases are written first: white boxes or black boxes?
Ans: Generally, black-box test cases are written first and white box test cases later. To write black-box test cases we need the requirement documents and design or project plan. All these documents are easily available in the earlier phase of the development.
A black box test case does not need the functional design of the application but white box testing needs. The structural design of the application is clearer in the latter part of the project, mostly while executing or designing. For black-box testing, you need to only analyze from the functional perspective which is easily available from a simple requirement document.
What is the difference between latent and masked defect?
Ans: The difference between latent and masked defect are: A latent defect is an existing defect that has not yet caused a failure because the conditions that are required to invoke the defect is not meet. A masked defect is an existing defect that has not yet caused a failure just because another defect hides that part of the code from being executed where it is present.
What is covered and what are the different types of coverage techniques?
Ans: Coverage is a measurement used in software testing to describe the degree to which the source code is tested. There are three basic types of coverage techniques as shown in the following figure: Statement coverage: This coverage ensures that each line of the source code has been executed and tested.
Decision coverage: This coverage ensures that every decision (true/false) in the source code has been executed and tested. Path coverage: In this coverage, we ensure that every possible route through a given part of the code is executed and tested.
Explain the concept of defect cascading?
Ans: Defect cascading is a defect which is caused by another defect. In this one, defect invokes the other defect in the application. When a defect is present at any stage but is not identified, hide in other phases without getting noticed. This will result in an increase in the number of defects.
What are the basic elements of the defect report format?
Ans: The basic elements of the Defect Report Format are:
- Project name
- Module name
- A defect detected on
- A defect detected by
- Defect id
- Defect name
- Snapshot of the defect(if the defect is in the nonreproducible environment)
- Priority, severity, status
- Defect resolved by
- Defect resolved on.
What is baseline testing?
Ans: Baseline testing is the process of running a set of tests to capture performance information. Baseline testing uses the information collected to make the changes in the application to improve the performance and capabilities of the application. Baseline compares the present performance of the application with its own previous performance.
What is the benchmark testing?
Ans: Benchmarking testing is the process of comparing application performance with respect to the industry standard which is given by some other organization. Benchmark informs us where our application stands with respect to others. Benchmark compares our application performance with other company’s application’s performance.
What are verification and validation?
Ans: Verification: the process of evaluating the work-products of a development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that phase.
Validation: the process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it specified requirements.
Difference between Verification and Validation:
- Verification is Static Testing whereas Validation is Dynamic Testing.
- Verification takes place before validation.
- Verification evaluates plans, documents, requirements, and specifications, whereas Validation evaluates the product.
- Verification inputs are the checklist, issues list, walkthroughs, and inspection, whereas in the Validation testing of the actual product.
- Verification output is a set of documents, plans, specifications and requirement documents whereas in Validation actual product is output.
Explain Branch Coverage and Decision Coverage.
- Branch Coverage is testing performed in order to ensure that every branch of the software is executed at least. To perform the Branch coverage testing we take the help of the Control Flow Graph.
- Decision coverage testing ensures that every decision taking statement is executed at least once.
- Both decision and branch coverage testing is done to ensure the tester that no branch and decision-taking the statement, will not lead to failure of the software.
- To Calculate Branch Coverage: Branch Coverage = Tested Decision Outcomes / Total Decision Outcomes.
What is the difference between Retesting and Regression testing?
Ans: The differences between Retesting and Regression testing are below:
- Retesting is done to verify defect fix previous in now working correctly whereas regression is performed to check if the defect fix has not impacted other functionality that was working fine before doing changes in the code.
- Retesting is specific and is performed on the bug which is fixed whereas in regression is not be always specific to any defect fix it is performed when any bug is fixed.
- Retesting concern with executing those test cases that are failed earlier whereas regression concern with executing test cases that were passed in earlier builds.
- Retesting has higher priority over regression.
What is Mutation testing & when can it be done?
Ans: Mutation testing is performed to find out the defect in the program. It is performed to find out bugs in a specific module or component of the application. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions:
Competent programmer hypothesis: according to this hypothesis we suppose that the program writes the correct code of the program.
Coupling effect: according to this effect collection of the different sets of test data can also find large and complex bugs. In this testing, we insert a few bugs into the program to examine the optimal test inputs.
What is the severity and priority of the bug? Give some examples.
- Priority: concern with the application from the business point of view. It answers: How quickly we need to fix the bug? Or how soon the bug should get fixed?
- Severity: concern with the functionality of an application. How much the bug is affecting the functionality of the application?
1. High Priority and Low Severity: If a company logo is not properly displayed on their website.
2. High Priority and High Severity: Suppose you are doing online shopping and filled payment information, but after submitting the form, you get a message like “Order has been canceled.”
3. Low Priority and High Severity: If we have a typical scenario in which the application gets crashed, but that scenario exists rarely.
4. Low Priority and Low Severity: There is a mistake like “You have registered success” instead of successfully, success is written.
Explain bug leakage and bug release.
- Bug Leakage: When a customer or end-user discovered a bug which can be detected by the testing team. Or when a bug is detected which can be detected in the previous build then this is called Bug Leakage.
- Bug release is when a build is handed to the testing team with knowing that defect is present in the release. The priority and severity of the bug are low. It is done when a customer wants the application at the time. The customer can tolerate the bug in the released then the delay in getting the application and the cost involved in removing that bug. These bugs are mentioned in the Release Notes handed to the client for future improvement chances.
What are the alpha and beta testing?
- Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed over to the software QA team, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.
- Beta testing: beta testing becomes active. It is performed by the end-user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug-free or working as per the requirement. In-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.
What is Monkey testing?
Ans: Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing, we use Smart monkey and Dumb monkey.
Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop.
Dumb monkeys are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey is less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.
Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.
What are the test driver and test stubs?
The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in the top-down approach.
- The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in the bottom-up approach.
- Both test stub and test drivers are dummy software components.
- We need to test stub and test driver because of the following reason:
- Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepared, using that we can test module A.
- Now, module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases, we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.
What is random testing?
Ans: When the tester performs testing of an application by using random input from the input domain of the system, this is Random Testing.
Random testing involves the following procedures:
- Selection of input domain.
- Randomly selecting any input from the input domain.
- Using these test input testing of application is performed.
- The results are compared to the system specification. The test is a failure if any input leads to incorrect results, otherwise, it is a success.
What is Agile Testing?
Ans: Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client requirements and makes the application of a good quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the application is started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end-user requirements. We put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of a short time frame which will further help in reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be implemented in the code which will avoid the defects coming from the end-user.
Describe Use Case Testing.
- Use Case: A use case is a description of the process which is performed by the end-user for a particular task. A use case contains a sequence of the step which is performed by the end-user to complete a specific task or a step by step process that describes how the application and end-user interact with each other. The use case is written from the user point of view.
- Use case Testing: the use case testing uses this use case to evaluate the application. So that, the tester can examine all the functionalities of the application. Use case testing cover whole application,
What is the purpose of a test strategy?
Ans: We need Test Strategy for the following reasons:
- To have a signed, sealed, and delivered the document, where the document contains details about the testing methodology, test plan, and test cases.
- The test strategy document tells us how the software product will be tested.
- The test strategy document helps to review the test plan with the project team members.
- It describes the roles, responsibilities and the resources required for the test and schedule.
- When we create a test strategy document, we have to put into writing any testing issues requiring resolution.
The test strategy is decided first before lower-level decisions are made on the test plan, test design, and other testing issues.
Explain the bug life cycle.
Ans: Bug Life Cycle:
- When a tester finds a bug. The bug is assigned to NEW or OPEN status,
- The bug is assigned to a development project manager who will analyze the bug. He will check whether it is a valid defect. If not a valid bug is rejected then the status is REJECTED.
- If not, next the defect is checked whether it is in scope. When the bug is not part of the current release. Such defects are POSTPONED
- Now, Tester checks whether a similar defect was raised earlier. If yes defect is assigned a status DUPLICATE
- When a bug is assigned to the developer. During this stage, the bug is assigned a status IN-PROGRESS
- Once the code is fixed. The defect is assigned a status FIXED
- Next, the tester will re-test the code. In case the test case passes the defect is CLOSED
- If the test case fails again the bug is RE-OPENED and assigned to the developer. That’s all about Bug Life Cycle.
What are Error guessing and Error seeding?
- Error Guessing is a test case design technique where the tester has to guess what faults might occur and to design the tests to represent them.
- Error Seeding is the process of adding known faults intentionally in a program for the reason for monitoring the rate of detection & removal and also to estimate the number of faults remaining in the program.
Explain Compatibility testing with an example.
Compatibility testing is to evaluate the application compatibility with the computing environment like Operating System, Database, Browser compatibility, backward compatibility, the computing capacity of the Hardware Platform and compatibility of the Peripherals. For example, If Compatibility testing is done on a Game application, before installing a game on a computer, its compatibility is checked with the computer specification that whether it is compatible with the computer having that much of specification or not.
What is a Test Harness?
Ans: A test harness is a collection of software and test data required to test the application by running it in the different testing conditions like stress, load, data-driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:
- Test execution engine
- Test script repository
Automation testing is the use of a tool to control the execution of tests and compare the actual results with the expected results. It also involves the setting up of test pre-conditions.
Explain Statement coverage.
Statement Coverage is a metric used in White Box Testing. Statement coverage is used to ensure that all the states in the program code are executed at least once. The advantages of Statement Coverage are:
- Verifies that the written code is correct.
- Measures the quality of code written.
- Determine the control flow of the program.
- To Calculate Statement Coverage: Statement Coverage = Statements Tested / Total No. of Statements.
What are the types of testing?
There are two types of testing:
- Static testing: Static testing is a technique used in the earlier phase of the development lifecycle. The code error detection and execution of the program is not a concern in this type of testing. Also known as the non-execution technique. The Verification of the product is performed in this testing technique like Code Reviews, Inspections, Walkthroughs are mostly done in this stage of testing.
- Dynamic testing: Dynamic Testing is the concern with the execution of the software. This technique is used to test the dynamic behavior of the code. Most of the bugs are identified using this technique. These are the Validation activities. It uses different methodologies to perform testing like Unit Tests, Integration Tests, System Tests, and Acceptance Testing, etc.
Explain User acceptance testing.
Ans: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by the end-users on the applications before accepting the application.
- Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed for the Beta testing phase, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.
- Beta testing: is performed by the end-user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug-free or working as per the requirement. In-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.
- Gamma Testing: Gamma Testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. This testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.
What should be done after a bug is found?
Ans: After finding the bug the first step is a bug to be locked in the bug report. Then this bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the bug is fixed by the developer, fixes should be re-tested, and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn’t create problems elsewhere.
What if the software is so buggy it can’t really be tested at all?
Ans: In this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting bugs with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules and indicates deeper problems in the software development process project managers should be notified, and provided with some documentation.
What are the types of maintenance?
Ans: There are four types of maintenance. They are:
- Corrective Maintenance
- Adaptive Maintenance
- Perfective Maintenance
- Preventive Maintenance
What are the advantages of the waterfall model?
Ans: The advantages of the waterfall model are:
- Simple to implement and required fewer amounts of resources.
- After every phase output is generated.
- Help in methods of analysis, design, coding, testing, and maintenance.
- Preferred in projects where quality is more important than schedule and cost.
- Systematic and sequential model.
- Proper documentation of the project.
What is the Rapid Application Development model (RAD)?
Ans: The RAD model Rapid Application development (RAD) is an incremental software development process model that focus on the development of the project in a very short time. It is an enhanced version of the Waterfall model. It is proposed when requirements and solutions can be made independently system or software components, which is developed by different teams. After these smaller system components are developed, they are integrated to produce a large software system solution.
What are the advantages of black-box testing?
Ans: The advantages of this type of testing include:
- Developer and tester are independent of each other.
- The tester does not need knowledge of any programming languages.
- The test is done from the point-of-view of the user.
- Test cases can be designed when specifications are complete.
- Testing helps to identify issues related to functional specifications.
What is a software review?
Ans: A software review can be defined as a filter for the software engineering process. The purpose of any review is to discover errors in the analysis, design, and coding, testing and implementation phases of the software development cycle. The other purpose of a review is to see whether procedures are applied uniformly and in a manageable manner. It is used to check the process followed to develop the software is right.
What is reverse engineering?
Ans: By analyzing a final product the process of recreating a design is known as reverse engineering. Reverse engineering is the process followed in order to find difficult, unknown, and hidden information about a software system. It is important when software products lack proper documentation and are highly unstructured, or their structure has degraded through a series of maintenance efforts. Maintenance activities cannot be performed without a complete understanding of the software system.
What is the data flow diagram?
The Data Flow Diagram gives us information about the flow of data within the application.
- The DFD can be used to analyze the design of the application.
- It is a graphical representation of the structure of the data.
- A developer draws context-level DFD first showing the interaction between the different components of the application.
- DFD help in developing the software by clarifying the requirements and major functionalities.
- DFDs show the flow of data through a system.
- It is an important modeling tool that allows us to picture a system as a network of functional processes.
What is exploratory testing?
Ans: Exploratory testing: means testing an application without a test plan and test script. In exploring the testing test explore the application on the basis of his knowledge. The tester has no knowledge about the application previously. He explores the application as an end-user and tries to use it. While using the application his main motive is to find the bugs which are in the application.
What is compatibility testing?
Ans: Compatibility testing is a type of testing used to find out the compatibility between the application and platform on which application works, web browsers, hardware, operating systems, etc. Good software must be compatible with different hardware, web browser, and a database.
What is SRS and BRS document?
Ans: Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is a documented form of the requirement of the customer. It consists of all the requirements of the customer regarding that software to be developed. The SRS document work as the agreement between the company and the customer consisting of all functional and nonfunctional requirements.
Business Requirement Specification (BRS) are the requirements as described by the business people. The business tells “what” they want for the application to do. In simple word BRS contain the functional requirement of the application.
Can you explain the V model in manual testing?
Ans: V model: it is an enhanced version of the waterfall model where each level of the development lifecycle is verified before moving to the next level. In this testing starts at the very beginning. By testing, we mean verification by means of reviews and inspections, static testing.
Each level of the development lifecycle has a corresponding test plan. A test plan is developed to prepare for the testing of the products of that phase. Be developing the test plans, we can also define the expected results for testing the products for that level as well as defining the entry and exit criteria for each level.
What is Concurrency Testing?
Ans: Concurrency Testing is used to know the effects of using the software by different users at the same time. In this type of testing, we have multiple users performing the exact same requests at the same time. It helps in identifying and measuring the problems in Response time, levels of locking and deadlocking in the application. For this we use Load runner to create VUGen (Virtual User Generator) is used to add the number of concurrent users and perform an operation on the application at the same time.
What is an inspection in software testing?
Ans: An inspection is more formalized than a walkthrough. The inspection technique involves 3 to 8 team member consisting of a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as requirements or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what is missing, most problems will be found during this preparation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. It is one of the most cost-effective methods of ensuring quality.
A Form has four mandatory fields to be entered before you Submit. How many numbers of test cases are required to verify this? And what are they?
Ans: Five test cases are required to test:
- Enter the data in all the mandatory fields and submit, should not display an error message.
- Enter data in any two mandatory fields and summit, should issue an error message.
- Do not enter in any of the fields should issue an error message.
- If the fields accept the only number, enter numbers in the fields and submit, should not issue an error message, try to enter only in two fields should issue an error message, and enter alphabets in two fields and number in the other two fields it should issue an error message.
- If the fields do not accept special characters, then enter the characters and submit them.
What is Cyclomatic Complexity?
Ans: Cyclomatic complexity is used to measure the complexity of the software using the control flow graph of the software. It is a graphical representation, consisting of the following:
- NODE: The statement of the program is taken as the node of the graph.
- Edges: the flow of command is denoted by edges. Edges are used to connect two nodes, this show flow of control from one node to another node in the program.
- Using this node and edges we calculate the complexity of the program.
- This determines the minimum number of inputs you need to test always to execute the program.