Latest Manual Interview Questions – Test Strategy, Bug Life Cycle
What is the difference between QA and software testing?
Ans: The role of QA (Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the “process” used to produce the software. While software testing is the process of ensuring the functionality of the final product meets the user’s requirement.
What is Testware?
Ans: Testware is testing artifacts like test cases, test data, test plans needed to design and execute a test.
What is the difference between build and release?
- Build: It is a number given to Installable software that is given to the testing team by the development team.
- Release: It is a number given to Installable software that is handed over to the customer by the tester or developer.
What are the automation challenges that SQA(Software Quality Assurance) team faces while testing?
- Mastering the automation tool
- Reusability of Automation script
- The adaptability of the test case for automation
- Automating complex test cases.
What are bug leakage and bug release?
- Bug release is when the software or an application is handed over to the testing team, knowing that the defect is present in a release. During this, the priority and severity of the bug are low, and a bug can remove before the final handover.
- Bug leakage is something when the end-users or customers discover the bug and not detected by the testing team while testing the software.
What is data-driven testing?
Ans: Data-driven testing is an automation testing framework, which tests the different input values on the AUT. These values are read directly from the data files. The data files may include CSV files, excel files, data pools, and many more.
Explain the steps for Bug Cycle?
- Once the tester identifies the bug, it is assigned to the development manager in open status
- If the bug is a valid defect, the development team will fix it.
- If it is not a valid defect, the defect will be ignored and marked as rejected
- The next step will be to check whether it is in scope. If the bug is not the part of the current release, then the defects are postponed
- If the defect or bug raised earlier, then the tester will assign a DUPLICATE status
- When the bug is assigned to the developer to fix, it will give an IN-PROGRESS status
- Once the defect repaired, the status will change to FIXED in the end, and the tester will give CLOSED status if it passes the final test.
What does the test strategy include?
Ans: The test strategy includes an introduction, resource, scope, and schedule for test activities, test tools, test priorities, test planning, and the types of test that has to be performed.
Mention the different types of software testing?
- Unit testing
- Integration testing and regression testing
- Shakeout testing
- Smoke testing
- Functional testing
- Performance testing
- White box and Black box testing
- Alpha and Beta testing
- Load testing and stress testing
- System testing
What is branch testing, and what is boundary testing?
Ans: The testing of all the branches of the code, which is tested once, is known as branch testing. While the testing, which is focused on the limit conditions of the software, is known as boundary testing.
What are the contents of test plans and test cases?
- Testing objectives
- Testing scope
- Testing the frame
- The environment
- Reason for testing
- The criteria for entrance and exit
- Risk factors
What is Agile testing, and what is the importance of Agile testing?
Ans: Agile testing is software testing, is testing using Agile Methodology. The importance of this testing is that, unlike the normal testing process, this testing does not wait for the development team to complete the coding first and then doing testing. The coding and testing both go simultaneously. It requires continuous customer interaction.
What is a Test case?
Ans: Test case is a specific condition to check against the Application Under Test. It has information of test steps, prerequisites, test environment, and outputs.
What is the strategy for Automation Test Plan?
Ans: The strategy for Automation Test Plan
- Preparation of Automation Test Plan
- Recording the scenario
- Error handler incorporation
- Script enhancement by inserting checkpoints and looping constructs
- Debugging the script and fixing the issues
- Rerunning the script
- Reporting the result
What is a quality audit?
Ans: The systematic and independent examination for determining the effectiveness of quality control procedures is known as the quality audit.
What are the tools used by a tester while testing?
- YSlow for FireBug
- Web Developer toolbar for the firebox
- Above are just simple tools. The tools a Tester may vary with his/her project.
Explain stress testing, load testing, and volume testing?
- Load Testing: Testing an application under heavy but expected load is known as Load Testing. Here, the load refers to the large volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.
- Stress Testing: When the load placed on the system is raised or accelerated beyond the normal range, then it is known as Stress Testing.
- Volume Testing: The process of checking the system, whether the system can handle the required amounts of data, user requests, etc. is known as Volume Testing.
What are the five common solutions for software development problems?
Ans: Setting up the requirements criteria, the requirements of software should be complete, clear, and agreed by all. The next thing is the realistic schedule like time for planning, designing, testing, fixing bugs, and re-testing Adequate testing, start the testing immediately after one or more modules development. Use rapid prototype during the design phase so that it can be easy for customers to find what to expect Use of group communication tools
What is a ‘USE’ case, and what does it include?
Ans: The document that describes the user action and system response for a particular functionality are known as a USE case. It includes revision history, table of contents, the flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions, and post-conditions.
What is CRUD testing and how to test CRUD?
Ans: CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update, and Delete. CRUD testing can be done using SQL statements.
What is thread testing?
Ans: A thread testing is top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
What is configuration management?
Ans: It is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project. Release control, Change control, and Revision control are important aspects of configuration management.
What is Ad Hoc testing?
Ans: It is a testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality. It can include negative testing, as well.
Latest Manual Testing Interview Questions And Answers PDF
List the roles of Software Quality Assurance Engineer?
Ans: A quality assurance engineer tasks may include following things amongst others
- Writing source code
- Software design
- Control of source code
- Reviewing code
- Change management
- Configuration management
- Integration of software
- Program testing
- Release management process
Explain what are the test driver and test stub and why it is required?
Ans: The stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in the top-down approach. The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in the bottom-up approach. It is required when we need to test the interface between modules X and Y, and we have developed only module X. So we cannot just test module X, but if there is any dummy module we can use that dummy module to test module X
Explain what Bug triage is?
Ans: A bug triage is a process of Ensure bug report completeness Assign and analyzes the bug Assigning the bug to proper bug owner Adjust bug severity properly Set appropriate bug priority
List out various tools required to support testing during the development of the application?
Ans: To support testing during development of application following tools can be used
- Test Management Tools: JIRA, Quality Center, etc.
- Defect Management Tools: Test Director, Bugzilla
- Project Management Tools: Sharepoint
- Automation Tools: RFT, QTP, and WinRunner
Explain what a cause-effect graph is?
Ans: A cause-effect graph is a graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects that can be used to design test cases.
Explain what is Test Metric is software testing, and what information does it contain?
Ans: In software testing, Test Metric is referred to as the standard of test measurement. They are the statistics narrating the structure or content of testing. It contains information about
- Total test
- Test run
- Test passed
- Test failed
- Tests deferred
- Test passed the first time
Explain what the traceability matrix is?
Ans: A test matrix is used to map test scripts to requirements.
Explain what the difference between Regression testing and Retesting is?
Ans: Retesting is carried out to check the defects fixes, while regression testing is performed to check whether the defect fix has any impact on other functionality.
List out the software quality practices through the software development cycle?
Ans: Software quality practices include
- Review the requirements before starting the development phase
- Code Review
- Write comprehensive test cases
- Session-based testing
- Risk-based testing
- Prioritize bug based on usage
- Form a dedicated security and performance testing, team
- Run a regression cycle
- Perform sanity tests on production
- Simulate customer accounts on production
- Include software QA Test Reports
Explain what is the rule of a “Test Driven Development”?
Ans: The rule of a Test-Driven Development is to prepare test cases before writing the actual code. This means you are be writing code for the tests before you write code for the application.
Mention what the types of documents in SQA are?
Ans: The types of documents in SQA are
- Requirement Document
- Test Metrics
- Test cases and Test plan
- Task distribution flow chart
- Transaction Mix
- User profiles
- Test log
- User profiles
- Test incident report
- Test summary report
Explain what should your QA documents should include?
Ans: QA testing document should include
- List the number of defects detected as per severity level
- Explain each requirement or business function in detail
- Inspection reports
- Test plans and test cases
- Bug reports
- User manuals
- Prepare separate reports for managers and users
Explain what is MR and what information does MR consists of?
Ans: MR stands for Modification Request, also referred to as a Defect report. It is written for reporting errors/problems/suggestions in the software.
What does the software QA document should include?
Ans: Software QA document should include
- Business rules
- Code changes
- Test plans
- Test cases
- Bug reports
- User manuals, etc
Mention how validation activities should be conducted?
Ans: The following techniques should conduct validation activities
- Hire third-party independent verification and validation
- Assign internal staff members that are not involved in validation and verification activities independent evaluation that
is the difference between Quality Assurance, Quality Control, and testing?
Ans: Quality Assurance is the process of planning and defining the way of monitoring and implementing the quality (test) processes within a team and organization. This method defines and sets the quality standards for the projects. Quality Control is the process of finding defects and providing suggestions to improve the quality of the software. The methods used by Quality Control are usually established by quality assurance. It is the primary responsibility of the testing team to implement quality control. Testing is the process of finding defects/bugs. It validates whether the software built by the development team meets the requirements set by the user and the standards set by the organization. Here the main focus is on finding bugs, and testing teams act as a quality gatekeeper.
When do you think QA activities should start?
Ans: QA activity should start at the beginning of the project. The more early it starts, the more benefit it is to set the standards for achieving the quality. The cost, time, and efforts are very challenging in case the QA activities get delayed.
What is the difference between the Test Plan and Test Strategy
Ans: Test Strategy is at a higher level, mostly created by the Project Manager, who demonstrates the overall approach of the testing for the entire project, whereas the Test plan depicts how the testing should be performed for a particular application, falling under a project.
Can you explain the software testing life cycle?
Ans: Software Testing Life Cycle refers to a testing process that has specific steps to be executed in a definite sequence to ensure that the quality goals have been met.
How do you define a format of writing a good test case?
Ans: A test case has the below format:
- Test case ID,
- Test case description
- Build version
- Steps to execute
- Expected results
- Actual results
- Also, refer to the below link to get more information:
What is a good test case?
Ans: In simple words, a good test case is one that finds a defect. But all test case will not find defects, so A good test case can also be one which has all the prescribed details and coverage.
What would you do if you have a large suite to execute in very little time?
Ans: In case we have less time and have to execute the larger volume of test cases, we should prioritize the test case at first instance and execute the high priority test cases first and then move on to the lower priority ones. This way, we can make sure that the important aspects of the software are tested. Alternatively, we may also seek customer preference that which is the most important function of the software according to them, and we should start testing from those areas and then gradually move to those areas which are of less importance.
Do you think QA’s can also participate in resolving production issues?
Ans: Definitely!! It would be a good learning curve for QA’s to participate in resolving production issues. Many time production issues could be solved by clearing the logs or making some registry settings or by restarting the services. The QA team could very well fix this kind of environmental issue. Also If QAs have an insight on resolving the production issues, they may include them while writing the test cases, and this way, they can contribute to improve quality and try to minimize the production defects.
Suppose you find a bug in production, how would you make sure that the same bug is not introduced again?
Ans: the Best way is to immediately write a test case for the production defect and include it in the regression suite. This way, we ensure that the bug does not get introduced again. Also many a time we can even think of other test cases or similar kind of test case and include them in our planned execution.
What is the difference between functional and nonfunctional testing?
Ans: Functional testing deals with the functional aspect of the application. This technique tests that the system is behaving as per the requirement and specification. These are directly linked to customer requirements. We validate the test cases against the specified requirement and make the test pass or failed accordingly. Examples include regression, integration, system, smoke, etc. Nonfunctional testing – on the other hand, tests the Nonfunctional aspect of the application. It tests NOT the requirement, but the environmental factors like performance, load, and stress.
These are not explicitly specified in the requirement but are prescribed in the quality standards. So as QA, we have to make sure that these testing are also given sufficient time and priority.
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What is the negative testing? How is it different from positive testing?
Ans: Negative testing is a technique that validates that the system behaves gracefully in case of any invalid inputs. For example, in case the user enters any invalid data in a text box, the system should display a proper message instead of a particular message which the user does not understand. Negative testing is different from positive testing in a way that positive testing validates that our system works as expected and compares the test results with the expected results. Most of the time, scenarios for negative testing are not mentioned in the functional requirement documents. As a QA, we have to identify the negative scenarios and should have provisions to test those.
How would you ensure that your testing is complete and has good coverage?
Ans: Requirement traceability matrix and Test coverage matrices will help us to determine that our test cases have good coverage. Requirement traceability matrices will help us to determine that the test conditions are enough so that all the requirements are covered. Coverage matrices will help us to determine that the test cases are enough to satisfy all the identified test conditions in RTM.
An RTM will look something like:
- quality assurance 1
- Similarly, Test coverage matrices will look like:
- quality assurance 2
What are the different artifacts you refer to when you write the test cases?
Ans: The main artifacts used are:
- Functional requirement specification
- Requirement understanding document
- Use Cases
- User Stories
- Acceptance criteria
- Many a time UAT test cases
Have you ever managed writing the test cases without having any documents?
Ans: Yes, many a time, we have a situation where we have to write test cases without having any concrete documents. In that case, the best way is to Collaborate with the BA and development team.
- Dig into mails which have some information.
- Dig into older test cases/regression suite
- If the feature is new, try to read the wiki pages or help of the application to have an idea
- Sit with the developer and try to understand the changes being made.
- Based on your understanding, identify the test condition and send it to BA or stakeholders to review them.
What is meant by Verification and Validation?
Ans: Validation is the process of evaluating the final product to check whether the software meets the business needs. The test execution which we do in day to day life is validation activity, which includes smoke testing, functional testing, regression testing, systems testing, etc. Verification is a process of evaluating the intermediary work products of a software development lifecycle to check if we are on the right track of creating the final product.
What are the different verification techniques you know?
Ans: Verification techniques are static. There are three verification techniques:
Review, Inspection, and walkthrough.
- Review – This is a method by which code/test cases are examined by the individual other than the author who has produced it. It is one of the easy and best ways to ensure coverage and quality.
- Inspection – Is a professional and disciplined way to examine and correct the defects in the test artifact or code. Because it is disciplined, it has various roles: Moderator – Who facilitates the entire inspection meeting
Recorder – Who records the minutes of the meeting, defects occurred, and other points discussed.
Reader – The one who will read out the document/code. The leader also leads to the entire inspection meeting.
Producer – The author. They are ultimately responsible for updating their document/code as per the comments. Reviewer – All the team can be considered as a reviewer. This role can also be played to be some group of experts is the project demands.
- Walkthrough – Is a process in which the author of the document/code reads the content and gets the feedback. This is most of the time a kind of FYI (For your information) session rather than seeking corrections.
What is the difference between Load and Stress testing?
Ans: Stress Testing is a technique which validates the behavior of the system when it executes under stress. To explain, we reduce the resources and check the behavior of the system. We first understand the upper limit of the system and gradually reduce the resources and check the system behavior.
In Load testing, we validate the system behavior under the expected load. The load can be of concurrent user or resources accessing the system at the same time.
In case you have any doubts regarding your project, how do you approach it?
Ans: In case of any doubts, first try to get it clear by reading the available artifacts/application help. In case of doubts persisting, ask an immediate supervisor or the senior member of your team.BA’s would also be a good choice to ask doubts. We can also touch base with the development team in case of any doubts. The last option would be to follow up with the manager and finally to the stakeholders.
Have you used any Automation tools?
Ans: The answer to this question is very much exclusive to the individual. Reply to all the tools and strategies of automation that you have used in your project.
How do you determine which piece of software requires how much testing?
Ans: We can know this factor by finding out the Cyclomatic Complexity. The technique helps to identify the below 3
- questions for the programs/featuresIs the feature/program testable?
- Does everyone understand the feature/ program?
- Is the feature/program reliable enough?
As a QA, we can use this technique to identify the “level” of our testing. It is a practice that if the result of cyclomatic complexity is more or a bigger number, we consider that piece of functionality to be of complex nature, and hence, we conclude as a tester; that the piece of code/functionality requires in-depth testing.
On the other hand, if the result of Cyclomatic Complexity is a smaller number, we conclude a QA that functionality is less complexity and decide scope accordingly as a QA, its very important that we understand the entire testing lifecycle & should able to suggest changes our process if required.